This chapter investigates transnational adaptations and transpacific transcreations of American Spider-Man comics into Japanese manga and their subsequent readaptation into American formats. Focusing on Ryoichi Ikegami’s Spider-Man the Manga (1970–71/1997–99), Yamanaka Akira’s Spider-Man J (2004–05/2008–09), and Marvel’s Mangaverse version of Spider-Man (Kaare Andrews, 2002–03), this chapter traces the multidirectional cultural flow between American superhero comics and various Japanese manga transcreations. The first two of these Spider-Man manga (Ikegami and Akira) were created and first published in Japan before they were translated, reworked, and then published in the United States, while Spider-Man Mangaverse was designed to capitalize on the manga boom of the early 2000s by implementing American(ized) manga superheroes. I argue that the story of Spider-Man transcreations and transpacific adaptations represents neither a teleological movement from locally resistant adaptations to a globally marketable and transnational hybrid style nor an extended moment of cultural imperialism during which American superhero comics would take over the Japanese market or Japanese superhero manga would come to dominate the production of superhero comics in the United States. Rather, the story illustrates the prevalence of transnational negotiations and transformations that subject popular serial narratives to endless circulation and cause them to bounce continually across national comics styles and storytelling traditions.
Stein, Daniel (2013): „Of Transcreations and Transpacific Adaptations. Investigating Manga Versions of Spider-Man“, in: Shane Denson / Christina Meyer / Daniel Stein (Hg.): Transnational
Perspectives on Graphic Narratives. Comics at the Crossroads. London, S. 145–161.